История Европы

История Европы
Хронологическая
Европа в каменном веке
Античность
Средние века
Эпоха Возрождения
Новое время
Европейский Союз

Эта статья посвящена истории Европейского континента.

Содержание

Европа в каменном веке

Основная статья: Европа в каменном веке

Появление людей в Европе. Палеолит и мезолит.

Европа оставалась незаселённой людьми довольно долго. На юго-западной окраине региона, в Грузии (Дманиси), были найдены останки людей, живших 1,8 миллиона лет назад и принадлежащих к форме, переходной между Homo habilis и Homo erectus, позже расселившимся по всей южной Азии. Эту форму выделили в отдельный вид, Homo georgicus, и предполагается, что все останки принадлежат особям одной популяции.

Откуда пришел человек в Европу, спорно. Известно только, что Европа не являлась местом зарождения человечества. Существуют версии о том, что первые гоминиды пришли в Европу из Индии. Но наиболее вероятной является гипотеза о приходе гоминидов в Европу из Африки через Переднюю Азию. Есть предположение, что это произошло в середине виллафранкского времени.

По-настоящему заселили Европу гейдельбергский человек и его вероятный прямой потомок неандерталец, причём последний представлял из себя специализированную форму, адаптированную к европейскому климату.

Самое раннее появление людей современного физического типа в Европе, известное на настоящий момент, датируется 35 тыс. лет назад, а 28 тысяч лет назад, вероятно, окончательно исчез неандерталец.

Известны постоянные поселения 7 тысячелетия до н. э. в Болгарии, Румынии и Греции.

Неолит

Основная статья: Неолитическая Европа

Неолит достиг Центральной Европы в 6-м тысячелетии до н. э. и частей Северной Европы в 5-м и 4-м тысячелетиях до н. э. Не обнаружено доисторической культуры, которая покрывала бы всю Европу.

Бронзовый век

Основная статья: Бронзовый век в Европе

Первая хорошо известная письменная цивилизация в Европе была Минойская цивилизация на острове Крит, и позднее Микенская цивилизация в Греции, начиная со второго тысячелетия до н.э..

Железный век

Греция и Балканы

Основная статья: Древняя Греция

В конце Бронзового Века старые греческие королевства пали, наступили Греческие Тёмные Века, а после них - Классическая Греция. Балканы Железного Века были населены палео-балканскими народами, такими как Фракийцы и Иллирийцы.

Кельты

Около 400 до н. э., культура железного века Ла Тене распространилась до Пиренейского полуострова, смешиваясь с более ранними жителями Иберии, в результате чего появляется уникальная Кельтебрианская культура.

Кельты не использовали письменность, однако Римляне оставили нам множество записей о их контактах с кельтами.

Эти отчеты и археологическое свидетельство формируют наше первичное понимание этой чрезвычайно влиятельной культуры. Кельты смогли оказать огромное, даже если дезорганизованное, сопротивление римскому государству, которое колонизировало и завоевало большую часть южной части Европы.

Италия

Основная статья: Этрурия

Северная Европа

Основная статья: Германия (древняя)

Британия

Основная статья: Римская Британия

Эллинизм и Древний Рим

Эллинизм

Основная статья: Эллинизм

Эллинистическая цивилизация началась как коллекция городов-государств (самые важные из них были Афины и Спарта), которые имели самые разнообразные типы управления и культуры, философии, науки, политики, спорта, театра и музыки.

Эллинические города-государства основали большое количество колоний на берегах Чёрного моря и Средиземного моря, Азия Минор, на Сицилии и в Южной Италии (Magna Graecia), но в четвёртом столетии до н. э. их внутренние войны сделали их лёгкой добычей для короля Филиппа II Македонского. Кампании его сына Александра Македонского распространили греческую культуру в Персию, Египет и Индию, но также благоприятствовали контакту с более старыми культурами этих стран, открыв (начав) новый период развития, известный как Эллинизм.

Древний Рим

Основная статья: Древний Рим

Большая часть знаний греков было ассимилировано Римским государством, расширявшимся с территории Италии. Из-за неспособности его врагов объединиться единственным реальным вызовом росту римского могущества стала финикийская колония Карфаген, но поражение Карфагена в конце 3-го столетия до н.э отметило начало римской гегемонии.

Сначала управляемый королями, затем как сенаторская республика (Римская Республика), Рим(Римская Республика), Рим наконец стала империей в конце 1-го столетия до н.э, под Августом и его авторитарными преемниками.

Римская империя имела свой центр на Средиземном море, управление всеми странами на его берегах; северная граница была отмечена реками Рейн и Дунай; при императоре Траян (2-е столетие нашей эры) империя достигла своей максимальной экспансии, включив в свой состав такие территории, как Римская Британия, Румыния и части Месопотамии. Империя принесла с собой мир, цивилизацию, эффективное централизованное управление, но в третьем столетии серия гражданских войн подорвала её экономический и социальный статус.

В 4-м столетии, императоры Диоклетиан и Константин I Великий смогли замедлить процесс упадка, разделяя империю на Западную и Восточную части. В то время, как Диоклетиан сурово преследовал Христианство, Константин I объявил официальное прекращение преследование христиан в 313 своим Миланским эдиктом, таким образом, подготовив почву для империи позднее стать официально христианской в 380 (в результате чего Церковь стала важным институтом).

Раннее Средневековье

Периоды Средневековья
Раннее Средневековье
Высокое Средневековье
Позднее Средневековье
Основная статья: Раннее Средневековье

Западная Европа

Западная Европа возникла после Падения Западной Римской империи в 5 веке, as Германские племена завоевали её, в то время как Восточная Римская империя (a.k.a. Византийская империя) смогла пережить другое тысячелетие. Римская империя была уже разделена на греко-говорящие и латинско-говорящие регионы в течение многих столетий.

В 7-ом и 8-ом столетии арабское расширение принесло Исламские культуры к южным Средиземноморским берегам (от Сирии до Сицилии и Испании), далее увеличивая различия между различными Средиземноморскими цивилизациями. Huge amounts технологии и learning были потеряны, торговля languished и люди возвратились к местным аграрным сообществам-общинам.

В том же самом столетии, Болгары создали первое Славянское государство в Европе - Болгария.

Феодализм создал новый порядок в мире без городов и заменил централизованную римскую администрацию, которая была основана на городах и высокоорганизованной армии.

Единственным учреждением, пережившим крах Западной Римской империи была римско-католическая Церковь, которая сохранила часть римского культурного наследия и осталась первичным источником обучения в его области по крайней мере до 13-ого столетия.

Епископ Рима, известный как Папа Римский, стал лидером западной церкви (на востоке, его превосходство не было признано).

Священная Римская империя

Священная Римская империя возникла около 800, как Карл Великий, король франков, был коронован Папой как Император. Его империя основывалась на территориях современной Франции, the Low Countries and Germany расширяясь into modern Венгрию, Italy, Bohemia, Lower Saxony and Spain. Он и его отец получили существенную помощь от союза с Римским папой, который хотел помощь против Ломбардов. Римский папа был официально вассал Византийской Империи, но Византийский император не мог сделать ничего против Ломбардов.

В конце 9-го столетия и 10-го столетия, Северная и Западная Европа чувствовала расцветающую мощь и влияние Викингов, которые совершали набеги, торговали, завоёвывали и заселяли стремительно и эффективно с их передовыми мореходными судами, типа longships.

Венгры грабили материковую Европу, а Арабы - юг.

В 10-ом столетии независимые королевства были установлены в Центральной Европе, например Польша и Венгрия. Венгрия had stopped its pillaging campaigns.

Последующий период, заканчивающийся приблизительно в 1000, видел дальнейший рост феодализма, который ослабил Священную Римскую империю.

Высокое Средневековье

Основная статья: Высокое Средневековье

После Раскола христианской церкви (1054), Western Christianity was adopted by newly created kingdoms of Central Europe: Poland, Hungary and Bohemia.

Римская Католическая Церковь developed as a major power, leading to conflicts between the Pope and Emperor.

The area of the Roman catholic church expanded enormously due to conversions of pagan kings (Scandinavia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary) and crusades. Most of Europe was roman-catholic in the 15th century.

Позднее Средневековье

Основная статья: Позднее Средневековье

Ранние знаки второго рождения цивилизации в Западной Европе начали появляться в XI веке, когда торговля, ведущая к экономическому и культурному росту независимых городов-государств, таких как Венеция и Флоренция, снова началась в Италии. В это же время национальные государства начали формироваться в таких местах как Франция, Англия, Испания и Португалия, хотя процесс их формирования (обычно отмечаемый конкуренцией между монархией, аристократическими феодалами и церковью), фактически занял несколько столетий. (См. Реконкиста для последних двух стран.) С другой стороны, Священная Римская Империя, по существу базируемая в Германии и Италии, фрагментировалась на несметное число феодальных княжеств или небольших городов-государств, чьё подчинение императору было всего лишь формальным.

Одной из величайших катастроф, поразивших Европу, была бубонная чума, также известная как Чёрная смерть. Были многочисленные вспышки, но самая серьезная была в середине 1300-х, убившая по разным оценкам до трети европейской популяции. Так как многие евреи работали как ростовщики (ростовщичество не позволялось для христиан), евреев часто не любили другие европейцы, таким образом было популярно обвинять их в эпидемии. Это приводило к увеличению преследования евреев в некоторых областях. Тысяча евреев бежали в Польшу которая по иронии судьбы была пощажена первой чумой, но черная смерть возвращалась раз за разом.

Начиная с 14-го столетия, Балтийское море стало одним из самых важных торговых путей. Ганзейский союз, объединение торгующих городов, облегчил включение огромных областей Польши, Литвы и других балтийских стран в европейскую экономику.

По традиции, конец Среневековья связывают с Падением Константинополя и захват Византии турками-османами в 1453.

Турки сделали этот город столицей своей Оттоманской империи, которая продержалась вплоть до 1919 и включала также Египет, Сирию и большую часть Балкан.

Эпоха Возрождения и Реформация

Эпоха Возрождения

Основная статья: Эпоха Возрождения


Петрарка писал в 1330-х: 'я жив теперь, все же я предпочитал бы родиться в другое время.' He was enthusiastic about the Greek and Roman antiquity with great men who were dead. Маттео Пальмьери написал в 1430-х: 'Now indeed may every thoughtful spirit thank god that it has been permitted to him to be born in a new age.' Ренессанс родился. Новый век, где обучение было очень важно.

Падение Константинополя в 1453 принесло реализацию в странах римско-католической Церкви, что Европа отныне осталась единственным христианским континентом.

Реформация

Основная статья: Реформация

Христианство было раздроблено на две части из-за Реформации в 16-м столетии. Христианский мир медленно становился европейской цивилизацией. Эта Европа была меньше чем Европа нашего дня: Московское княжество не считалось частью Европы. Muscovians were seen as азиатские варвары, и Польша was seen в 16-м столетии как крепость, которая защищала Европу против варварских народов.

Турция владела большой частью Европы, but was regarded as alien из-за Ислама. Eméric Crucé (1623) came up with the idea of the European Council, intended to end wars in Europe; attempts to create lasting peace were no success, although all European countries (excluding Asian Muscovy and Turkey) agreed to make peace in 1518 at the Treaty of London.

Много войн вспыхнуло снова через несколько лет, включая Denmark versus Sweden, England and Spain versus France. Реформация made European peace impossible for many centuries. Furthermore, many regarded war as positive; what is the use of civilization when you can't defend it? The ideal of civilization was taken over from the ancient Greeks and Romans: discipline, education and living in the city were required to make people civilized; Europeans and non-Europeans were judged for their civility, and Europe regarded itself as superior to other continents. People described the virtues of their own country and the vices of other European countries. There was a growing concern for the side effects of too much wealth: it created vices and weakness.

There was a movement (Montaigne) that regarded the non-Europeans as a better, more natural and primitive people. Europe was rapidly exploring the world, but knowledge and art remained an internal development. Post services were founded all over Europe, which made the humanistic Commonwealth of Learned Men possible: university graduates and students were interconnected and could correspond with each other all over Europe and across the boundaries between Protestants and Roman Catholics. The Roman Catholic church banned many leading scientific works; this led to an intellectual advantage for Protestant countries, where the banning of books was regionally organized. Francis Bacon and other advocates of science tried to create unity in Europe by focusing on the unity in nature. 1

In the 15th century, at the end of the Средневековье, powerful государства were appearing, built by the New Monarchs who were centralizing power in France, England, and Spain. On the other hand the Parliament in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth grew in power, taking legislative rights from the Polish king. Parliaments were created in other countries and provinces as well where the estates got a large share in the responsibility. New kinds of states emerged which were cooperations between territorial rulers, cities, farmer republics and knights. These played a major role in the history of constitutions of (early) modern history. Contrariwise, the Church was losing much of its power because of corruption, internal conflicts, and the spread of culture leading to the artistic, philosophical, scientific and technological improvements of the Эпоха Возрождения era.

These powerful states were frequently in a state of political flux and war. In particular, after Мартин Лютер started the Реформация in 1517, wars of politics and religion ravaged the continent: the schism of the dominant western church was to have major political, social and cultural implications for Europe. What became the split between Catholicism and Protestantism was particularly pronounced in England (where the king Henry VIII severed ties with Rome and proclaimed himself head of the church), and in Germany (where Реформация united the various Protestant princes against the Catholic Habsburg emperors).

Unlike Western Europe, the countries of Central Europe, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Hungary, resolved religious questions by adopting religious tolerance. Central Europe was already split between Eastern and Western Christianity. Now it became divided between Catholics, Protestants, Orthodox and Jews.

Великие географические открытия

The numerous wars did not prevent the new states from exploring and conquering wide portions of the world, particularly in Asia (Siberia) and in the newly-discovered America. In the 15th century, Portugal led the way in geographical exploration, followed by Spain in the early 16th century. They were the first states to set up colonies in South America and trade stations on the shores of Africa and Asia, but they were soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands. In 1552 Russian tsar Ivan IV the Terrible conquered Kazan and the Yermak's voyage of 1580 led to the annexation of Siberia into Russia.

Colonial expansion proceeded in the following centuries (with some setbacks, such as the American Revolution and the wars of independence in many South American colonies). Spain had control of a great deal of South America, the Caribbean and the Philippines; Britain took the whole of Australia and New Zealand, most of India, and large parts of Africa and North America; France held parts of Canada and India (nearly all of which was lost to Britain in 1763), Indochina and large parts of Africa; the Netherlands gained the East Indies (now Indonesia) and islands in the Caribbean; Portugal obtained Brazil and several territories in Africa and Asia; and later, powers such as Germany, Belgium, Italy and Russia acquired further colonies.

This expansion helped the economy of the countries owning them. Trade flourished, because of the minor stability of the empires. The European countries fought wars, that were largely paid for by the money coming in from the colonies.

Ранний современный период: 16-е, 17-е и 18-е столетия

Основная статья: Early Modern Europe

Реформация имела profound effects на единство Европы. Мало того, что нации были разделены одна от другой своей религиозной ориентацией, but some states were torn apart internally by religious strife, avidly fostered by their external enemies. France suffered this fate in the 16th century in the series of conflicts known as the French Wars of Religion, which ended in the triumph of the Bourbon Dynasty. England avoided this fate for a while and settled down under Elizabeth to a moderate Anglicanism. Much of modern day Germany was divided into numerous small states under the theoretical framework of the Holy Roman Empire, was also divided along internally drawn sectarian lines, until the Thirty Years' War seemed to see religion replaced by nationalism as the motor of European conflict. The single exception to this was the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, an entity created by the agreement between the nobility of those two countries, highly valuing the religious tolerance.

Throughout the early part of this period, capitalism was replacing feudalism as the principal form of economic organization, at least in the western half of Europe. The expanding colonial frontiers resulted in a Commercial Revolution. The period is noted for the rise of modern science and the application of its findings to technological improvements, which culminated in the Industrial Revolution. Iberian exploits of the New World, which started with Christopher Columbus's venture westward in search of a quicker trade route to the East Indies in 1492, was soon challenged by English and French exploits in North America. New forms of trade and expanding horizons made new developments in international law necessary.

After the Treaty of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, Absolutism became the norm of the continent, while parts of Europe experimented with constitutions foreshadowed by the English Civil War and particularly the Glorious Revolution. European military conflict did not cease, but had less disruptive effects on the lives of Europeans. In the advanced north-west, the Enlightenment gave a philosophical underpinning to the new outlook, and the continued spread of literacy, made possible by the printing press, created new secular forces in thought. Again, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth would be an exception to this rule, with it's unique quasi-democratic Golden Freedom.

Eastern Europe was an arena of conflict for domination between Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. This period saw a gradual decline of these three powers which were eventually replaced by new enlightened absolutist monarchies, Russia, Prussia and Austria. By the turn of the 19th century they became new powers, having divided Poland between them, with Sweden and Turkey having experienced substantial territorial losses to Russia and Austria respectively. Numerous Polish Jews emigrated to Western Europe, founding Jewish communities in places where they had been expelled from during the Middle Ages.

Английская Гражданская война и Объединение с Шотландией

Главная статья: Английская революция XVII века

Прежде всего причиной войны была религия. Когда Карл I стал Королем в 1625 его Arminian стиль англиканства и его французская Католическая жена, казалось, объявляла и возврат к католичеству и папизму. К тому же, он не уживался с Парламентом, и непроизводительные сессии в 1620-х привели к закрытию Парламента в течение 11 лет. Однако, после шотландского вторжения в 1640 Карл был вынужден созвать Парламент, чтобы обеспечить деньги для армии. Парламент был разъярен и хотел свои обиды addressed. The Petition of Right, pushed through by Джон Пим, вынудило Чарльза соглашаться, что английские люди имели права и привилегии и что он подорвал их. Карл попытался арестовать Pym и пять других в феврале 1642 после того, как они попытались привлечь к ответственности королеву, утверждая, что она пыталась управлять Карлом и налагать французский стиль тирании на англичан.

Король и его семья покинули Лондон в мае 1642 и подъем королевского стандарта в Ноттингем начало войну. Сторону Карла называли Cavaliers; Парламентская сторона была Roundheads. Несмотря на начальные успехи, поражение Карла было обеспечено в 1644, когда Пим подписал соглашение с шотландцами. Карл был побежден и захвачен в плен. at Marston Moor в 1647, but he fled to the Isle of Wight and enlisted the help of the Scots, as Parliament had reneged on their agreement. However, his hopes came to naught when the Roundheads defeated them at Naseby.

Английское Содружество

Пим с тех пор умер и Grandees в Новой Образцовой Армии, и Парламент, включая Оливера Кромвеля, неохотно пришел к выводу, что они должны будут вынести Карлу I смертный приговор. Он был признан виновным пятьюдесятью девятью Специальными уполномоченными (Судьями) в государственной измене и казнен. С отменой Монархии Великобритания вошла в период, известный как английское Содружество.

Government by a Council of State with a Rump Parliament as the legislator. Реальная власть была у Grandees Новой Образцовой Армии и в 1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector. After Cromwell died in 1658 his son Richard Cromwell inherited the title but not the power. After a short return of the Commonwealth, the Interregnum came to an end with the restoration of the Monarchy under Charles’ son King Charles II.

Акт об Унии (1707)

Основная статья: История Великобритании

Акт об Унии (1707) объединил парламенты Королевств Англии и Шотландии, чтобы создать Великобританию.

Subsequently, the Акт об Унии (1800) королевства Великобритания и Ирландия в Соединенное королевство.

Having gone through a political revolution 100 years early, Великобритания entered the 18th century in a stronger position than her continental rivals who were still controlled by absolute monarchs.

Великая французская революция

By the late 18th century France's finances were in disarray. Lavish royal expenditure and costly wars, such as the French intervention in the American war of Independence, had bankrupted the state. After repeated failed attempts at financial reform, Louis XVI was persuaded to convene the Estates-General, a representative body of the country made up of three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The members of the Estates-General assembled in Versaille in May 1789, but the debate as to which voting system should be used soon became an impasse. Come June, the third estate, joined by members of the other two, declared itself to be a National Assembly and swore an oath not to dissolve until France had a constitution and created, in July, the National Constituent Assembly. At the same time the people of Paris revolted, famously storming the Bastille prison on 14 July.

At the time the assembly wanted to create a constitutional monarchy, and over the following two years passed various laws including the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the abolition of feudalism, and a fundamental change in the relationship between France and Rome. At first the king went along with these changes and enjoyed reasonable popularity with the people, but as anti-royalism increased along with threat of foreign invasion, the king, stripped of his power, decided to flee along with his family. He was recognised and brought back to Paris. On 12 January 1793, having been convicted of treason, he was executed.

20 сентября 1792 the National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. Due to the emergency of war the National Convention created the Committee of Public Safety, controlled by the Jacobin Robespierre, to act as the country's executive. Under Robespierre the committee initiated the Reign of Terror, during which up to 40,000 people were executed in Paris, mainly nobles, and those convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal, often on the flimsiest of evidence. Elsewhere in the country, counter-revolutionary insurrections were brutally suppressed. The regime was overthrown in the coup of 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794) and executed. The regime which followed ended the Terror and relaxed Robespierre's more extreme policies.

См. также статьи Якобинцы, Монтаньяры.

Наполеоновские войны

Основная статья: Наполеоновские войны

Napoleon Bonaparte was France's most successful general in the Revolutionary wars, having conquered large parts of Italy and forced the Austrians to sue for peace. In 1799 he returned from Egypt and on 18 Brumaire (9 November) overthrew the government, replacing it with the Consulate, in which he was First Consul. On 2 December 1804, after a failed assassination plot he crowned himself Emperor.

In 1805 Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria (Third Coalition), forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time failure to lure the superior British fleet away from the English Channel, ending in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October put an end to hopes of an invasion of Britain. On 2 December Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, forcing Austria’s withdrawal from the coalition and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1806 a Fourth Coalition was set up, on 14 October Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, marched through Germany and defeated the Russians on 14 June 1807 at Freidland, the Treaties of Tilsit divided Europe between France and Russia and created the Duchy of Warsaw.On 12 June 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia with a Grande Armée on nearly 700,000 troops. After the measured victories at Smolensk and Borodino Napoleon occupied Moscow, only to find it burned by the retreating Russian Army, he was forced to withdraw, on the march back his army was harassed by Cossacks, and suffered disease and starvation. Only 20,000 of his men survived the campaign.

By 1813 the tide had began to turn from Napoleon, having been defeated by a seven nation army at Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. He was forced to abdicate after the Six Days Campaign and the occupation of Paris, under the Treaty of Fontainebleau he was exiled to the Island of Elba. He returned to France on 1 March 1815 (see Hundred Days), raised an army, but was comprehensively defeated by a British and Prussian force at Waterloo on 18 June.

Венский конгресс

Основная статья: Венский конгресс

Венский конгресс was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe. It was held in Vienna from 1 October 1814, to 9 June 1815. The discussions continued despite Napoleon's return and the Congress's Final Act was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo. The Congress was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars, with the exception of the terms of peace with France, which had already been decided by the Treaty of Paris in May 1814.

The Congress's principal results, apart from its confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed in 1795 - 1810, were the enlargement of Russia, (which gained most of the Duchy of Warsaw) and Prussia, which acquired Westphalia and the northern Rhineland. Germany was consolidated from the ~300 states of the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved in 1806) into 39 states. These states were formed into a loose German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia and Austria.

Poland was again divided by Russia, Prussia and Austria. The Polish Kingdom became part of Russia, while western Poland became Prussian and southern Poland was made Austrian. Only the Republic of Cracow stayed independent until 1846.

Representatives at the Congress agreed to numerous other territorial changes. Norway was transferred from Denmark to Sweden. Austria gained Lombardy-Venetia in Northern Italy, while much of the rest of North-Central Italy went to Habsburg dynasts (The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena, and the Duchy of Parma). The Pope was restored to the Papal States. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored to its mainland possessions, and also gained control of the Republic of Genoa. In Southern Italy the Bourbon Ferdinand IV was restored to the throne. A large United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created for the Prince of Orange, including both the old United Provinces and the formerly Austrian-ruled territories in the Southern Netherlands.

There were other, less important territorial adjustments, including significant territorial gains for the German Kingdoms of Hanover and Bavaria, and the Portuguese rights to the Territory of Olivenza were recognized.

The countries involved with the Congress also agreed to meet at intervals and this led to the establishment of the "Congress system". This system was frequently criticized by 19th century historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses associated with the French Revolution. However, in the twentieth century many historians began to admire the work of the statesmen at the Congress of Vienna, whose work appeared to have prevented another large-scale European war for nearly one hundred years (1818-1914).

19 век

After the defeat of revolutionary France, the other great powers tried to restore the situation which existed before 1789. However, their efforts were unable to stop the spread of revolutionary movements: the middle classes had been deeply influenced by the ideals of democracy of the French revolution, the Industrial Revolution brought important economical and social changes, the lower classes started to be influenced by Socialist, Communist and Anarchistic ideas (especially those summarized by Карл Маркс in the Manifesto of the Communist Party), and the preference of the new capitalists became Liberalism (a term which then, politically, meant something different from the modern usage). Further instability came from the formation of several nationalist movements (in Germany, Italy, Poland etc.), seeking national unification and/or liberation from foreign rule. As a result, the period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Even though the revolutionaries were often defeated, most European states had become constitutional (rather than absolute) monarchies by 1871, and Germany and Italy had developed into nation states. 19 век also saw the British Empire emerge as the world's first global power due in a large part to the Industrial Revolution and victory in the Napoleonic Wars.

The first revolution to occur in Europe after the French Revolution was the Serbian Uprising of 1804, and the Second Serbian Uprising of 1815, which resulted in the proclamation of autonomous Serbia by the Ottoman Empire. The political dynamics of Europe changed three times over the 19th century - first after the Congress of Vienna, and again after the Crimean War. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, the major powers of Europe managed to produce a peaceful balance of power among the empires after the Napoleonic wars (despite the occurrence of internal revolutionary movements). But the peace would only last until the Ottoman Empire had declined enough to become a target for the others. (See history of the Balkans#Rise of Independence.) This instigated the Crimean War in 1854 and began a tenser period of minor clashes among the globe-spanning empires of Europe that set the stage for the first World War. It changed a third time with the end of the various wars that turned the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Prussia into the Italian and German nation-states, significantly changing the balance of power in Europe.

Начиная с 1870, the Bismarkian hegemony on Europe put France in a critical situation, and it slowly rebuilt it's relationships, seeking alliances with Russia and Britain, to control the growing power of Germany. By this way, two sides grew in Europe, improving year by year their military forces and alliances.

Early 20th century: the World Wars

Первая мировая война

Основная статья: Первая мировая война

After the relative peace of most of the 19th century, the rivalry between European powers exploded in 1914, when Первая мировая война started.

On one side were Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey (the Central Powers/Triple Alliance), while on the other side stood Serbia and the Triple Entente - the loose coalition of France, the United Kingdom and Россия, which were joined by Italy in 1915 and by the United States in 1917. Despite the defeat of Russia in 1917 (the war was one of the major causes of the Октябрьская революция 1917 года в России, leading to the formation of the communist Советский Союз), the Entente finally prevailed in the autumn of 1918.

In the Treaty of Versailles (1919) the winners imposed relatively hard conditions on Germany and recognized the new states (such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) created in central Europe out of the defunct German, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, supposedly on the basis of national self-determination. Most of those countries engaged in local wars, the largest of them being the Polish-Soviet War (1919-1921). In the following decades, fear of Communism and the economic Depression of 1929-1933 led to the rise of extreme nationalist governments - sometimes loosely grouped under the category of 'Fascism' - in Italy (1922), Germany (1933), Spain (after a Гражданская война в Испании ending in 1939) and other countries such as Hungary.

Вторая мировая война

Основная статья: Вторая мировая война

After allying with Mussolini's Italy in the "Pact of Steel" and signing a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, the German dictator Adolf Hitler and Soviet dictator Josef Stalin started World War II on 1st and 17 September 1939 attacking Poland and following a military build-up throughout the late 1930s. After initial successes (mainly the conquest of western Poland, much of Scandinavia, France and the Balkans before 1941) the Axis powers began to over-extend themselves in 1941. Hitler's ideological foes were the Communists in Russia but because of the German failure to defeat the United Kingdom and the Italian failures in North Africa and the Mediterranean the Axis forces were split between garrisoning western Europe and Scandinavia and also attacking Africa. Thus, the attack on the Soviet Union (which together with Germany had partitioned central Europe in 1939-1940) was not pressed with sufficient strength. Despite initial successes, the German army was stopped close to Moscow in December 1941. During this period, Germany began the systematic genocide of over 11 million people, including the majority of the Jews of Europe, in the Holocaust. Even as German persecution grew, over the next year the tide was turned and the Germans started to suffer a series of defeats, for example in the siege of Stalingrad and at Kursk. Meanwhile, Japan (allied to Germany and Italy since September 1940) attacked the British in south-east Asia and the United States in Hawaii on December 7, 1941; Germany then completed its over-extension by declaring war on the United States. War raged between the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allied Forces (British Empire, Soviet Union, and the United States). Allied Forces won in North Africa, invaded Italy in 1943, and invaded occupied France in 1944. In the spring of 1945 Germany itself was invaded from the east by Russia and from the west by the other Allies respectively; Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered in early May ending the war in Europe.

Late 20th century: Холодная война

Основная статья: Холодная война

World War I and especially World War II ended the pre-eminent position of western Europe. The map of Europe was redrawn at the Yalta Conference and divided as it became the principal zone of contention in the Cold War between the two power blocs, the Western countries and the Eastern bloc. The United States and Western Europe (the United Kingdom, France, Italy, West Germany, etc.) established the NATO alliance as a protection against a possible Soviet invasion. Later, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany) established the Warsaw Pact as a protection against a possible U.S. invasion.

Meanwhile, Western Europe slowly began a process of political and economic integration, desiring to unite Europe and prevent another war. This process resulted eventually in the development of organizations such as the European Union and the Council of Europe.

The Solidarność movement in the 1980s in weakened the Communist government in Poland. The Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev initiated perestroika and glasnost, which weakened Soviet influence in Eastern Europe. Soviet-supported governments collapsed, and West Germany absorbed East Germany by 1990. In 1991 the Soviet Union itself collapsed, splitting into fifteen states, with the Russian Federation taking the Soviet Union's seat on the United Nations Security Council.

The most violent breakup happened in Yugoslavia, in the Balkans. Four (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia) out of six Yugoslav republics declared independence and for most of them a violent war ensued, in some parts lasting until 1995. The remaining two republics formed a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, under the direction of Slobodan Milošević. Milošević presided over the Kosovo War, and was overthrown after his government was weakened by NATO airstrikes against Yugoslavia.

In the post-Cold War era, NATO and the EU have been gradually admitting most of the former members of the Warsaw Pact.

Начало 21 века: Европейский Союз

Основная статья: Европейский Союз

Continuing debate over the process of European integration continues to this day. Whereas the Европейский Союз started out as a loose economic alliance among European nations, the Европейский Союз took further steps to more closely integrate the member states, and make the EU into a more supranational organisation.

At the turn of the century, nations within the European Union had created a free trade zone and eliminated most travel barriers across their borders. A new common currency for many European nations, the euro, was established electronically in 1999, officially tying all of the currencies of each participating nation to each other. The new currency was put into circulation in 2002 and most of the old currencies were phased out. However, not all EU member states have decided to join the euro project, including the United Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden.

As of 2005, Европейский Союз is in the process of ratifying a new constitution, inducting additional member states (most of them in central Europe) and to consolidate various treaties. However, the creation of the constitution has been controversial, it is seen by many eurosceptics as an undesirable step towards a single EU state. There has been disagreement as member states wrangle over how much voting power each will have in the EU, taxes, and the standards to which new member states must be held before they are admitted. Rejection of the constitution by referendums in two EU founding states (France and the Netherlands) has left the future of the constitution in much doubt.

The Balkans remained in the spotlight due to the activities of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, and the border changes with the introduction of Serbia and Montenegro as a move to placate the frictions between the two federal units, and the eventual split between the two states, into Serbia и Черногория. Косово question remained unsolved (2006).

Черногория: Независимость Черногории официально признана Россией 12 июня 2006.

История современных государств

  1. Armenia, Cyprus and Georgia are countries ethnically associated with Europe but are geographically in Asia: the first and last mentioned are in the continentally Asian portion of the Caucasus
  2. Greenland is politically European (i.e., belonging to Denmark), but is peopled mostly by Inuit and geographically is part of North America. Greenland left the EEC in 1982.
  3. Iceland is culturally and politically European, but geographically isolated on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge junction of the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates. Iceland is member of the EFTA, and EEA, not of the EU.
  4. Russia's western lands are in Europe, whereas its vast eastern lands are in Asia (see Siberia)
  5. Turkey straddles Asia and Europe, with a small portion of its territory -- Thrace -- and Istanbul being situated in Europe, and the remainder geographically part of Asia. Turkey is currently in talks to join the EU.

См. также

Источники

  • James B. Collins and Karen L. Taylor (Ed.): Early modern Europe. Issues and interpretations, Malden, MA : Blackwell, 2006, ISBN 0-631-22892-6
  • Norman Davies, Europe: A History, Pimlico, ISBN 0712666338
  • R. R. Palmer, Joel Colton & Lloyd Kramer, A History of the Modern World, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-112147-1

Примечания

  1. Samuel Barone, The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance (London 1993)

Ссылки

 
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